Cyber Threats in Maritime Container Terminal Automation Systems
Penttilä, Olli-Jussi Johannes
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Kyberuhat konttisataman automaatiojärjestelmässä
The rapid development in connectivity of Industrial Control Systems has created a new security threat in all industrial sectors, and the maritime sector is no exception. Therefore this thesis explores cyber threats in a container terminal automation system using two methods: literature review and attack tree analysis. In this thesis, cyber threats in Industrial Control Systems were first studied in general by the means of a literature review. Then, the identified threats were applied to a software component of a terminal automation system using attack trees. Attack trees are a tool that helps in visualizing different cyber attacks. Based on the results, threats were classified in risk categories and the most problematic areas were identified. Finally, suggestions were made on how to improve cyber security of the component assessed and of the terminal automation system in general. Based on the literature review, ten different risk categories were identified. The categories cover various attacks ranging from malware and Denial-of-Service attacks all the way to physical and social attacks. When assessing the software component, three problem areas were identified: susceptibility to Denial-of-Service attacks, weak protection of communication and vulnerability of a certain software sub-component. The suggested security improvements include changes to the network design, use of stronger authentication and better management of the process automation network.